critical analysis of biodiversity act, 2002
Image credit: Sándor Borza (photographer). Fagan N Neural signatures of complex cognitive processing can occur in the absence of visual awareness, according to a case study of a person with distorted visual perception. These early successional plants include both cultivated species favored by humans (e.g., turfgrass, fast-growing ornamental shrubs, and trees), as well as weedy species that are common in both managed and unmanaged suburban habitats. (6) show that a focus of policy reform by governments must include not only the protection of large, intact areas but also small, isolated patches within highly modified environments. Source: All data are from Statistical Abstract of the United States for the years shown, except for Nature Conservancy data, which is from Stein and colleagues (2000). Although ostensibly related to cheaper costs of mass construction, retaining more predevelopment vegetation is less expensive in the long term (Dorney et al. In PNAS, Wintle et al. . Among plants, urban exploiters tend to be ruderal species that can tolerate high levels of disturbance, especially grasses and annuals (see reviews in Sukopp and Werner 1982, Whitney 1985, Kowarik 1995). For example, they can act as stepping stones that promote connectivity in otherwise highly modified environments (23). JD In contrast to the above, other studies show that suburban areas have reduced species diversity compared to less-altered rural habitats (figure 2). Species endemic to these systems must either persist within the remaining small patches or not at all. Unlike urban adapters, which are largely composed of early successional species from nearby ecosystems, urban exploiters are composed of a very small subset of the world's species; these exploiters are well adapted to intensely modified urban environments wherever humans construct them across the planet (Adams 1994, Johnston 2001, Marzluff 2001). Small patches make critical contributions to biodiversity conservation. Urban adapters, mammals and birds that are mainly adapted to forest edges and open areas, flourish in suburban habitats, especially older subdivisions where ecological succession has advanced and produced extensive revegetation. Small patches can play other crucial ecological roles beyond conserving sets of species that are extinct elsewhere in a landscape or region. The population density of nonnative species—both mammals (Mackin-Rogalska et al. Osborne . Whitcomb Because 80% of the American public lives in or near urban areas, there are many opportunities for creating an informed public that can wield enormous economic and political pressure to promote conservation policies. Sears 361 15 These animals exploit many foods, including human-subsidized foods, such as cultivated plants and garbage. Such analyses also may be important to assess the opportunity costs for biodiversity conservation arising from not managing other (sometimes larger) patches. Germaine . A major challenge is that remnant habitats are open to colonization by nonnative species of invasive plants (Luken 1997) and predatory animals such as housecats and dogs (Marzluff 2001). There is no doubt that large, intact patches are vitally important for the maintenance of some key ecological processes (13) and biodiversity conservation (14). Pickett Such habitat diversity is enhanced by the fact that individual homeowners often make individualistic choices in the plants that they cultivate (Henderson et al. C Nuhn PE Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. These studies show consistent changes in species richness and species composition along the gradient. Anderson NE T Aside from increasing total diversity, ecological succession also often reduces the diversity of non native species in an area (Gibson et al. Amount of land covered in the lower 48 states, by category. Trophically, they are usually omnivorous (Adams 1994) and include such familiar species as the house mouse, black or brown rat, and insects, including a variety of cockroach species. 2001). 22.214.171.124. Increasing nonnative species toward the city. In particular, it suggests that while large intact areas can be critical for conservation, the potential value of small patches should not be ignored. 1986, Maeda and Maruyama 1991, Blair 2001) and mammal (e.g., Nilon and VanDruff 1987) studies have concluded that species along the gradient can be classified, for convenience, into three distinct categories reflecting their reaction to human activities. It is estimated, for example, that residential yards occupy 135,000 acres in the state of Missouri (MDC 2002). Luken . . As subsidized resources increase toward the urban core, there is a concurrent increase in species that utilize them. Avian urban exploiters are often species evolutionarily adapted to cliff-like rocky areas and therefore are preadapted to the devegetated concrete edifices of very urbanized areas (Lancaster and Rees 1979, Adams 1994). M McIntyre Urban adapters are often found in the matrix of human land uses that occur in suburban landscapes. . Blair (2001), for example, found just 7 summer resident bird species in the central business district of Palo Alto, California, compared with 21 species that inhabited a natural area (preserve) outside the city limits. [MDC] Missouri Department of Conservation Urban planners should find ways to preserve biodiversity as cities expand outward and subsequently modify natural habitat. Goldstein J Matthiae The final conservation challenge of sprawl is its current and growing geographical extent (Benfield et al. Johnston Robbins Also, urbanization is often more lasting than other types of habitat loss. NH Two basic conservation strategies with respect to urban sprawl are shown at the top. . Another group of avian exploiters consists of cavity-nesting species that are able to inhabit human dwellings. They review some examples, however, of rare species of insects and plants found in highly urbanized areas; habitat conservation and restoration could be planned for sites that harbor such species. More empirical work is urgently needed to underpin the case for their conservation. The increase in nonnative species toward the urban core reflects a number of human causes. This is reflected in voting behavior: Legislators from highly urbanized states and districts tend to be more supportive of strengthening the Endangered Species Act (Mehmood and Zhang 2001). . Dorney Mackin-Rogalska FJ Many studies describe how native species richness in a remnant habitat increases with the area of that habitat. . 2000). India’s Biological Diversity Act, 2002 (hereafter BD Act) draws its mandate are devised in this controversial context on diversity and its use. 1981, Beissinger and Osborne 1982, Sears and Anderson 1991, Adams 1994). A study of the fate of natural vegetation during urban development in Wisconsin found that only about one-third of the original vegetation was not destroyed (Sharpe et al. The development of environment jurisprudence in India is obliged to the Apex Court and the numerous legislations and policies.
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