philosophical argument examples

Posted at November 7, 2020

Or in other words, we need to know that the conclusion is true. For example, the Mughal Emperor Akbar was a Muslim who ruled India from 1556-1605. Oxford            University Press, 1983. You start from a basic statement or “premise,” and as long as that premise is true there is no logical way for the conclusion to be false. Each individual step in the argument is a separate claim. Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/philosophical-argument/, This is just a sample. 31 January 2008            . Inductive inferences don’t have to be true, but probably are. However, notice that it’s a matter of probability, not a matter of logical certainty like a deductive argument. Get Your Custom Essay on, By clicking “Write my paper”, you agree to our, An argumentative claim about The Chimney Sweeper-William Blake, Ap English Language Argumentative or Persuasive, Capital Punishment in Canada Argumentative Persuas, Hugh Lafollette's Argument for Parental Licensing, https://graduateway.com/philosophical-argument/, Get your custom His hope was that, through argument, people of different religions would learn from each other and that eventually a new religion would emerge, combining the best insights from each tradition. Which of the following is not a component of argument? “I find I am much prouder of the victory I obtain over myself, when, in the very ardor of dispute, I make myself submit to my adversary’s force of reason, than I am pleased with the victory I obtain over him through his weakness.” (Michel de Montaigne). (2016, Jul 12). This results in rhetoric like "we are simply trying to defend ourselves from an external threat (own internal introspection), which was originally instigated by Those Evil People because they're a bunch of Really Nasty Bastards (simplification of introspection of other party)." Especially in a democratic society, one should always have a critical mind regarding statements given by someone promoting any given solution or opinion. Jeremy Bentham, at least to me, was one of the greatest thinkers ever to have lived. ... Just being able to spot a post hoc ergo propter hoc-argument or understanding the concept of onus probandi will give you a better view into the rationality of the opinions and arguments of others. As we saw in section1, the supporting claims are intended to respond to doubts about the main claim. An argument is all about coming to an agreement (or, if agreement is not possible, at least understanding the reasons why it’s impossible). Argument, if you know how to do it right, can resolve differences; fighting usually just makes them worse. You have fundamentally two completely different perspectives in that given exchange. We humans have an unbelievable knack to ignore the abyss beneath the thin shell of our own psyche, and that can lead to acting out of sheer ignorance. This is nothing short of sticking your head to the sand until the nasty thing goes away, and you're just as likely to get bitten in the ass if you do so. For any of this to make sense, every adult person should have a satisfactory rational explanation as to why they can say that an external world beyond their own internal world exists in the first place. If you find this confusing, visit our article on Inferences for more detail. The reason is quite simply because your explanation has to do with your motives, but his/her perspective is based solely on the consequences. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Supporting claim: I studied statistics in college. There’s no way for that. What are some things nearly everyone believes that actually aren't true? One more example to illustrate the point; you lend your car to a friend, who ends up accidentally crashing it. Thank you for visiting our Philosophy website! In all of these areas he emphasized the importance of arguments and logic, not because he was an inherently contentious man (though that may have been true — opinions differ), but mainly because he believed that the clash of ideas would lead to new, better ideas. That’s the problem with deductive reasoning: if the premises are accurate, it’s air-tight; but often they are not. It doesn’t give the latest findings, experiments, or tests. Though it is not explicitly stated, the conclusion of the argument is that: God necessarily exists. What are some of mankind's stupidest concepts? Often this takes the form of a friendly argument or debate. your own paper. Different cultures have different ways of going about it — different ideas, for example, of what counts as polite argument, or what sorts of topics are appropriate to argue about in a given setting. It should be necessary to everyone to explain to themselves in a satisfactory manner a) why they believe in what they believe b) is there a possibility of them being completely and utterly wrong in their conclusions. Drawing on the ideas of non-European thinkers in places like India, China, and the Middle East, Europeans developed a method of argument and experimentation that we call science. “Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, this is Chewbacca. I dare say that most people don't realize that they have more than one internal voice, especially since it's considerably easier to go along with the conclusion of the most vocal one at any given time. A friend of mine once said that you can't really call yourself an adult before having dealt with the idea of existentialism, and I agree completely. Just being able to spot a post hoc ergo propter hoc-argument or understanding the concept of onus probandi will give you a better view into the rationality of the opinions and arguments of others. Designed for: High School, Middle School Topics Covered: Arguments and philosophical reasoning Deductive inferences have to be true. You can get your custom paper from My personal favorite is a Norwegian philosopher by the name of Peter Wessel Zapffe, whose essay "The Last Messiah" encapsulates the concept of existentialism in a slightly "healthier" way than Nietzsche's body of work. The non-involved vantage point that I mentioned earlier basically means that a part of you notices when you're arguing with yourself and can observe the process. Argument in Popular Culture Example 1. The results of this kind of thinking can be seen in every genocide that has ever befallen our species, because just observing the consequences makes it a lot easier to label someone evil. It is often helpful to take an argument from its original prose statement and lay out its premise(s) and conclusion(s) -- i.e., to put it into standard form, because then its reasoning (whether good or bad!) ©2020 Verizon Media. "You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy", Don't use plagiarized sources. I'm talking about the fact that there are different parts in a person's mental make-up, otherwise there wouldn't be much sense in the idiom "to argue with oneself" or in the concept of self-doubt. Arguments are probably as old as language itself. our expert writers, Hi, my name is Jenn Think about a cover letter. What are the questions that most people don't ask themselves enough. In order to argue well, you have to put yourself in the reader’s position and imagine what doubts they might have about your claim. Once you start with introspection, and realize the possible fallacy that you're unwittingly committing by downplaying those of other people, you quickly run into the possibility that everything you think and believe might be utterly and completely wrong, or at least not as absolute as you previously thought. In the cover letter, each paragraph covers out one of the supporting claims, providing further support and detail. In addition, being able to examine your own internal process from a non-involved vantage point while it's happening is extremely helpful in creating a complete idea of your self-identity. After all, it’s possible that aliens could come and destroy the sun, meaning it wouldn’t rise or set ever again. Especially in light of the existential fear of death that we as human being tend to generally share, the idea is very simple: when you're alive, you're alive, so thinking about your own death is premature and pointless, and when you're dead, you tend to be too busy being dead to notice it at all. All rights reserved. That’s extremely unlikely, but not logically impossible. When you extend this to a confrontational situation, you end up with some of the bloodiest conflicts possible; people only realize their own justifiable motivations for aggression, misunderstanding, or simply not caring about those of of the opposing party. Wouldn’t it be helpful if you could reason with her and persuade her to spend her energy in a different direction? This is the classic ontological, or a … While some rulers try to suppress argument, others historically have welcomed it. Sorry, but downloading is forbidden on this website. So what’s the difference between deductive and inductive inferences? But it does not really explain human psychology, or any contemporary morality. Big Issue Ground. The way we can see if the conclusion is true, is to check to see if the argument is valid. In fact, it’s possible that language originated as a way for pre-human primates to influence one another’s behavior without resorting to violence. In fact, learning to argue well is one of the most important skills you can develop — in your personal and professional relationships, a certain amount of conflict and disagreement is inevitable. A cover letter might work like this (the underlined portions would be stated explicitly (claims), whereas the italic parts are just implied/anticipated (inferences)): Expected doubt: We need someone with statistics skills, which most people don’t have. Philosophical Argument. By examining these contents, the passage is an argument for it tries to deny the concept of Psychological Egoism using the aforementioned premises. The point of pondering the aforementioned questions and finding a satisfactory personal answer to them is to link your thoughts and opinions (and the rationale behind them), be they philosophical, religious or political, into an internally consistent framework, which helps you deal with new questions and ideas and gives you a means to overcome the sense of cosmic terror that all people suffer from, but which most subconsciously ignore.

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